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August 3, 2015

In late June, the USDA Risk Management Agency (RMA) announced the expansion of crop insurance options for winter wheat growers, including the Supplemental Coverage Option (SCO) and the Actual Production History (APH) Yield Exclusion.

The option for winter wheat growers to participate in the APH Yield Exclusion (YE) option is now available for the 2016 crop year. This provision was not available for winter wheat growers last year due to late implementation. The APH YE allows for the exclusion of an actual yield for a crop year when RMA determines the county per planted acre yield for a crop year was at least 50 percent below the simple average of the per planted acre yield for the crop in the county for the previous 10 consecutive crop years.

Interactive maps are available on the RMA website that show which counties and years are eligible to drop yields for the YE provision.

Maps: []

The Wheat Foods Council is proud to sponsor triathlete Michele Tuttle, MPH, RD, who will be competing in the International Triathlon Union (ITU) Grand Final 2015 in Chicago. Michele was a bronze medal winner at the 2014 Worlds in London and is ranked #11 in the U.S. in her age group.

Michele shared her journey and training with the Wheat Foods Council and one question asked was: Why did you start competing as an adult? What motivates you?

“I’ve always enjoyed having a goal or purpose. Although I love training and exercise, somehow it feels better to know that I’m going to “use” it for something. I started swimming competitively at age 13 and continued through college. After graduating from college, I would sign up for an event every now and then, usually a masters swim meet, at least once per year. Having a goal means you get up on those cold dark mornings and train when you’d rather stay in bed.”

“I think my biggest source of motivation for racing is simply the desire to see where my limits are physically and mentally. People often say they race and train because they can. The older I get, the more I believe this. I do it because I can. So many people either cannot physically exercise because of health problems, or simply don’t feel the payoff of exercise is worth the hassle or discomfort. For me, I’ve always had to do some form of physical activity to be able to function well in the rest of my life. I wouldn’t say I’m “addicted” to exercise but I really don’t feel good on the days I don’t do some sort of activity. That makes it easy for me: it’s sort of like brushing my teeth. I may be tired or whatever, but I do it anyway and am always glad I did.”

When asked about grains and what part they play in her diet, she responded:

“I’ve always, always, always eaten a diet that features lots of grains. And, I’ve been a very active person my whole life. II get hungry every 2-3 hours no matter what I eat. For me, foods like cereals, breads, and pasta are staple foods. Of course I eat other types of grains, too, and I eat whole grains as much as I can. But, I also include a lot of enriched grains because they’re easy for me to eat and I like them. For me, grains are important because they taste good to me, and nutritionally they supply the carbohydrate, iron and B vitamins that I need a lot of because of my training.”

You can follow Michele’s story online at

ARLINGTON, Virginia (December 17, 2014) — The National Association of Wheat Growers (NAWG) and U.S. Wheat Associates (USW) applaud President Obama’s announcement today that the United States will begin discussions to renew diplomatic relations with Cuba, which will make it easier for Cuba to buy U.S. agricultural products, including wheat. We anticipate that these re-established trade relations will help open a market for U.S. wheat products in Cuba.

Cuba, which does not grow wheat commercially, is the largest wheat market in the Caribbean, purchasing almost all of its wheat from the European Union and Canada. Cuba could import at least 500,000 metric tons of wheat from the United States each year but has not purchased U.S. wheat since 2011. Under the current embargo, the United States can export agricultural products to Cuba through the use of third-party banking institutions, which makes facilitating trade burdensome and often more expensive.

“U.S. wheat farmers are excited about the prospect of exporting more wheat to Cuba,” says NAWG President Paul Penner. “NAWG has long supported strengthened trade relations with Cuba and see this as a historic step in that direction.”

“The U.S. wheat industry applauds these actions, which take concrete steps away from a policy approach towards Cuba that has accomplished little,” said USW President Alan Tracy. “If Cuba resumes purchases of U.S. wheat, we believe our market share there could grow from its current level of zero to around 80-90 percent, as it is in other Caribbean nations.”

USW is the industry’s market development organization working in more than 100 countries. Its mission is to “develop, maintain, and expand international markets to enhance the profitability of U.S. wheat producers.” The activities of USW are made possible by producer checkoff dollars managed by 19 state wheat commissions and through cost-share funding provided by USDA’s Foreign Agricultural Service. For more information, visit or contact your state wheat commission.


U.S. Wheat Associates prohibits discrimination in all its programs and activities on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, gender, marital or family status, age, disability, political beliefs or sexual orientation. Persons with disabilities who require alternative means for communication of program information (Braille, large print, audiotape, etc.) should contact U.S. Wheat Associates at 202-463-0999 (TDD/TTY – 800-877-8339, or from outside the U.S.- 605-331-4923). To file a complaint of discrimination, write to Vice President of Finance, U.S. Wheat Associates, 3103 10th Street, North, Arlington, VA 22201, or call 202-463-0999. U.S. Wheat Associates is an equal opportunity provider and employer.

Contact: Steve Mercer
Vice President of Communications
U.S. Wheat Associates
(703) 650-0251

3103 10th Street, North w Suite 300 w Arlington, VA 22201
Tel: (202) 463-0999 Fax: (703) 524-4399

The Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service will offer individual assistance to producers who would like help with inputting their farm data into the decision aid calculator designed by the  Agricultural Food Policy Center at Texas A&M University. The help session will be Thursday, Dec. 4 from 1-5 p.m. at the Texas A&M AgriLife Research and Extension Center, 6500 W. Amarillo Blvd., in Amarillo. The forms listed below are required to receive help in inputting the data into the decision aid calculator.

Producers unable to attend the help session or who do not have the necessary forms together on the day of the session, are encouraged to bring their information to the Texas Wheat office at a more convenient date to receive assistance. The Texas Wheat staff has been trained to input data into the decision aid and welcome any producer who would like help with their farm data.

inputting data info sheet_ Decision Aid Calculator

November 21, 2014

What is all of the talk about?

A recent blog post titled “The Real Reason why Wheat is Toxic (and it isnt gluten)” by the Healthy Home Economist has stirred a lot of conversations regarding glyphosate-treated wheat or better known as applying herbicides like Roundup to wheat prior to harvest. The article alarmingly claims that Roundup herbicides are commonly doused on wheat crops a few days before harvest, linking glyphosate residues to the recent surge in Celiac disease and claiming wheat is now toxic.

Claim Vs. Fact

Claim 1: Wheat crops are doused or drenched in Roundup herbicides a few days before harvest.

Fact: It is not routine for U.S. wheat producers to use Roundup, or other formulations of glyphosate, for pre-harvest applications. Most of the states in the wheat belt have drier climates, so getting additional help in maturing out the crop from a desiccant, like Roundup, isn’t necessary as much of the field will dry out and ripen on its own.

Although Roundup is labeled for pre-harvest applications, there is a standard pre-harvest interval (PHI) of at least seven to 14 days before harvest can take place, if the herbicide is applied to the wheat crop. Glyphosate, the active ingredient of Roundup, is used to control perennial weeds, although a very small percentage of producers also use it as a desiccant to evenly ripen a field of wheat for harvest.

Fact: Plants are not “doused” in Roundup or its active ingredient glyphosate. Relatively small amounts of glyphosate are applied as weeds emerge. Think about it this way:

No more than 22 ounces per acre mixed with 3–20 gallons of water (depending on application) can be applied pre-harvest. One acre is relatively the same size as a football field (minus the endzones), or 43,560 square feet. If a farmer decided to apply Roundup and he put out 22 ounces mixed with 10 gallons of water on one acre, that would be equivalent to a Gatorade bottle (20 ounces) of Roundup mixed with 10 gallons of water spread evenly on the size of an entire football field. If you converted those 10 gallons of water into ounces that would equal 1,280 ounces. The concentration of the Roundup mix would only be 0.017 or 1.7% (22 ounces of Roundup in 1,280 ounces of water).

As stated in “The Truth About Herbicides in Wheat”  by Kansas Wheat, Anita Dille, Ph.D., a professor of weed ecology at Kansas State University states:

“The purpose of herbicides (like Roundup®) is for weed control. There are a number of different times that herbicides are put on for weed control. And often if you think of a wheat production system, it could be right before planting or right after planting if there’s weeds during the crop.”

So, the  majority of herbicide usage happens before, or shortly after planting. That is around eight to nine months prior to harvest and if the herbicide IS used prior to harvest, only a MINUTE amount is actually applied.

Claim 2: Glyphosate applications are not regulated.

Fact: It is important to remember that glyphosate is regulated and poses no concern with regard to human health. It is regulated under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) through the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). As mentioned above, no more than 22 ounces of herbicide mix can be applied per acre.

Farmers also regularly consult local seed companies and state extension offices to make sure certain farm practices are needed for operation success during the growing season. Practices that are available may not always be practical.

For more information, please reference the additional resources links.

National Association of Wheat Growers (NAWG) Vice President Brett Blankenship addresses recent concerns about the applications of the general herbicide Glyphosate and encourages consumers to reach out to farmers if they have any questions about their food.

Additional Links and Information:

The Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service will be providing a wheat-based educational program during this year’s Amarillo Farm and Ranch Show, set for Tuesday, Dec. 2 at the Amarillo Civic Center, Grand Plaza Ballroom, 401 S. Buchanan St. in Amarillo.

The program titled – A Focus on Wheat in the Texas Panhandle – will begin at 1 p.m. and adjourn at 5:40 p.m. This will be a complete overview of wheat, including weeds, diseases, insects, breeding, fertility and plant growth regulators.

The program will have a $10 registration fee and offer four Texas Department of Agriculture continuing education units (CEU) – two general, one integrated pest management and one drift management – for pesticide applicators.  Four Texas Department of Agriculture and Certified Crop Advisors (CCA) continuing education units – two general, one integrated pest management and one drift management – will also be offered.

In addition to attending the wheat-based program, producers should also plan to attend the Farm Bill Analysis program that will be from 9 a.m. to noon on Tuesday, Dec. 2, with Dr. Steve Amosson, AgriLife Extension economist in Amarillo. Amosson will discuss farm bill provisions, sign-up requirements and deadlines. Amosson will also walk producers through the decision-aid tool developed by the Agricultural and Food Policy Center at Texas A&M University, which is designed to help economically evaluate program choices.

For more information on any of these AgriLife Extension programs, contact Carr at 806-373-0713 or

Program Speakers:

  • Overview of Texas wheat and AgriLife Extension programs and a focus on new herbicides and application timing | Dr. Clark Neely – AgriLife Extension State Small Grains Specialist, College Station.
  • Plant growth regulators in wheat | Dr. Jourdan Bell – AgriLife Extension Agronomist, Amarillo.
  • Dealing with wheat disease management, fungicide, and diagnostics. “A focus on High Plains virus, barley yellow dwarf, and wheat streak mosaic” | Dr. Ron French – AgriLife Extension Plant Pathology Specialist, Amarillo.
  • Best management practices related to control of wheat pests. “A focus on wheat curl mites, Russian wheat aphids, and greenbugs” | Dr. Ed Bynum – AgriLife Extension Entomologist, Amarillo.
  • Effects of alternative hosts and mite movement during the growing season. The impact of temperature and water on diseases and viruses. The wheat virus early detection system | Jacob Price – Texas A&M AgriLife Research Senior Research Associate, Amarillo.
  • Breeding for resistance to Wheat Streak Mosaic and the introduction of TAM 204 | Dr. Jackie Rudd — AgriLife Research Wheat Breeder, Amarillo.
  • Impact of fertility and nitrogen on small grains, what does a soil sample mean related to fertility and nutritional management needs of wheat | Dr. Calvin Trostle – AgriLife Extension Agronomist, Lubbock.

November 10, 2014

From biotechnology and domestic trade policy to research and industry communication, many from various aspects of the wheat industry met in New Mexico Oct. 29 – Nov. 1 for the the wheat industry’s annual fall conference. The conference is a joint meeting of the U.S. Wheat Associates (USW) and the National Association of Wheat Growers (NAWG), which also includes a mix of wheat growers, state wheat commissions and technology providers.

Committees from the two organizations conducted business and prepared agendas for the upcoming year to tackle industry concerns and progression. The USW and NAWG will meet again in January at the annual winter conference held in Washington, D.C. which will also include visits to Capitol Hill in addition to taking further action in each committee. A synopsis of business conducted in each committee during the fall conference is referenced below:

Joint International Trade Policy Committee

The Joint International Trade Policy Committee, made up of representatives from both NAWG and USW, tackled a busy agenda that included a discussion on the ongoing trade agreements with the Asian-Pacific region (TPP) and the European Union (T-TIP), in addition to reiterating the need for Congress and the administration to pass Trade Promotion Authority, to ease the passage of the agreements.

The Committee also dove into the upcoming Federal Grain Inspection Services (FGIS) reauthorization, and discussed how the wheat industry could use the legislation as tool to avoid another situation similar to the one at the Port of Vancouver, WA last summer, when state and federal inspectors would not inspect grain, causing a stoppage in shipments.

Joint Biotech Committee

The NAWG and USW Joint Biotech Committee met to discuss a wide range of biotechnology facing the wheat industry today. Included on the agenda was a brief discussion of the APHIS report on the investigation into GMO wheat in Oregon two summers ago, as well as updates from several tech providers, and staff updates on GMO labeling initiatives and the Wheat Innovation Alliance (WIA). Much of the discussion focused around currently ongoing efforts from the agriculture industry to gain a Low Level Presence (LLP) for GMO traits in shipments of grain, both domestically and internationally, and how the wheat industry can be involved going forward.

The discussion lead to a motion by the committee to “authorize the Chairman and staff to collaborate with other grain groups to recommend a threshold level at the January meeting.” The guest speaker for the meeting was Vic Knauf, Chief Scientific Officer from Arcadia Biosciences.

Environmental and Renewable Resources Committee

The Environment and Renewable Resources Committee met to discuss regulatory issues affecting wheat growers and farm bill implementation. The committee heard from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and NAWG general counsel regarding the EPA’s Waters of the U.S. proposed regulation. The committee discussed action on written comments, which will be submitted prior to the November 14 deadline, requesting that EPA withdraw the
proposed regulation.

The committee also agreed to send a letter to Secretary Vilsack regarding National Resource Conservation Service contribution agreements, an issue raised by the North Dakota Grain Growers Association. A copy of the letter can be found here. With the Administration’s lack of action on the 2014 Renewable Fuels Renewable Volumetric Obligations, the committee recommended joining with several other agriculture commodity organizations in sending a letter to President Obama. A copy of the RFS RVO letter can be found here. The committee also discussed the expected timeline for farm bill conservation program regulation and a strategy for preparing NAWG comments.

Research & Technology Committee

Following the opening introductions and approval of the agenda and previous meeting minutes, Matt Erickson of the American Farm Bureau Federation (AFBF) gave an overview of current agricultural group discussions led by AFBF about farmer data. He stressed that the guiding principles of technology providers are consistency and transparency in their policies concerning agricultural data generated on farms.

Committee member and former chair Robert Blair then gave an update on current FAA rules regarding unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and discussed the challenges those rules pose to farmers who wish to use the technology and manage data collected using them. He emphasized the need for farmer representation on the FAA advisory committee. The Committee also heard that the Association of Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) has invited NAWG to participate in their congressional briefing session on March 9, 2015. The focus of the briefings will be on the capabilities and applications of unmanned aerial systems in agriculture.

The Committee passed a resolution in support of grower representation on the Federal Aviation Administration small commercial Unmanned Air Systems rulemaking committee. Additionally, they passed a motion to provide a letter from NAWG supporting the Triticeae Cooperative Action Program (T-CAP) and urging the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA) to issue a Request for Proposals that would allow TCAP to apply for future funding.

Domestic Trade and Policy Committee

The Domestic Trade and Policy Committee started with general discussion and staff updates and then moved right into presentations given by their invited speakers. The first presentation was given by Kevin Koffman and Loch Edwards from TTMS Group. The discussion focused on issues that the northern plains are facing, specifically the challenge of railroads not being able to move grain due to capacity issues.

Next, Tara Smith, from Michael Torrey and Associates, spoke on behalf of the Crop Insurance Reinsurance Bureau about the future of crop insurance. Smith pointed out that crop insurance was one of the farm bill items that all of agriculture stood together on and one of the only items that received increased funding. However, crop insurance is a target of many organizations from both the far left and the far right and agriculture needs to ban together in the coming years to defend crop insurance and keep it working for our growers.

The last part of the meeting focused on the decision tools made available on the USDA website. Dr. Joe Outlaw from Texas A&M University and Dr. Gary Schnitkey from the University of Illinois, the two leading universities that developed the decision tools, were both on hand to walk through their decision aides. Both professors went step-by-step through their tools and allowed for questions from all present. At this point in the farm bill implementation process, farmer education is of the upmost importance growers will have to make a five-year long decision on which programs to sign up for early next year.

November 10, 2014

Last week Texas Wheat traveled to Corsicana to present at the annual Navarro County Food and Fiber Roundup. The one-day event  held in the Navarro County Exposition Center invited elementary schools, primarily fourth graders, to learn about where their food and fiber comes from.

Six demonstration stations were set up around the exposition center and 763 fourth graders from across the county moved from station to station to learn about a specific part of the agriculture industry. Meredith DeBorde, Navarro County Agrilife 4-H agent, said the sole purpose of the roundup is to educate fourth graders, who are at an impressionable age, about where their food comes from in Navarro County and around the world.

Stations included a dairy cow milking demonstration, soil samples and information about cotton, corn and wheat. A swine and cattle station completed the round of education sessions. Katie Heinrich, director of communications and producer relations at Texas Wheat, taught the students about when and how wheat is grown, why there is different types of flour, and the small return farmers get from the sale of a common wheat product – a loaf of bread. Heinrich also showed non-food products made from wheat including school glue, hair conditioners and dog treats. Common food items, such as sphaghetti, cake and cookies were also presented. Heather Morris, daughter of Texas Wheat Producers Board member Gary Murhpy, helped organize and provide the wheat products for the presentation.

The students were served pizza for lunch and each station also showed where each ingredient in a pizza originates.

The roundup proved to be a successful event again this year and incorporates the rural setting of Corsicana with the young minds of students who may not have ever seen any type of agriculture production. The roundup also allows presenters to connect items the students use on a day-to-day basis with the agriculture products that are included in those items.


2014 Navarro County Ag Day 2


October 20, 2014

Article by Chris Clayton, DTN/The Progressive Farmer

Wheat scientists and breeders at the World Food Prize Borlaug Dialogue on Friday pushed for more research programs for the crop and stressed that genetic engineering will be needed to grow more wheat in the future.

One of the final panel discussions at the week-long symposium tackled wheat production and rust diseases that plague the crop globally. The panel was reflective of the core of Nobel Prize laureate Norman Borlaug’s life’s work to breed more disease-resistant and higher-yielding varieties of wheat in developing countries. Borlaug helped end some of the scientific complacency in dealing with diseases such as rust.

Panel members focused on an issue Borlaug rarely faced: Having a technology — genetic engineering — that they know can help prevent famine but that is unacceptable in much of the world due to fear.

At the center of the panel discussion was Ug99, one of the most devastating wheat rusts. The disease got its designation after being discovered in Uganda in 1999. It’s a potent rust that can take 100% of a crop and attacks varieties bred to be resistant to other forms of stem rust. Ug99 is still affecting farmers in most East Africa countries, as well as Yemen and Iran. Several strains of Ug99-resistant varieties have been released in North Africa and the Middle East in recent years to help curb the spread of the Ug99 rust globally.

A consortium of companies and wheat breeders has come together to raise the yield potential of wheat by 50% over the next 20 years. Hans Joachim Braun, director of the Global Wheat Program for the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, known as CIMMYT, was optimistic about work on wheat rust, but he acknowledged complacency is a problem. “Wheat is really relatively underinvested compared to other crops,” Braun said.

Ronnie Coffman, a plant breeding professor at Cornell University, leads a five-year project about Ug99 that was funded by a $40 million grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the United Kingdom. The project, which includes dozens of governments, universities and research facilities globally, is looking for wheat genes resistant to stem rust, ways to track the disease and ways to get stem-rust resistant seeds to farmers in countries hit by Ug99.

Coffman said the science is there to deliver rust resistance, but scientists do not have the support from society to provide the science to farmers. To combat virulent rust strains such as Ug99, scientists must discover and successfully transfer multiple resistance genes, Coffman said.

“We need GM technology to do that, initially,” Coffman said.

Cornell also has used $5.6 million in grant money from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation to start “the Alliance for Science” with the goal of trying to depolarize the debate around ag biotechnology and promote science to decision makers.

“We have two big objectives. One is to try to reclaim the conversation around biotechnology so that science and evidence-based perspectives surround the decision-making,” Coffman said.

The second objective is to “populate the science” with effective communicators, Coffman said. The alliance wants to develop communications training and activities for people who work in biotech and food production. “We all need to communicate better,” Coffman said. “It’s essential.”

Market sensitivity has been the main hindrance preventing commercialization of any biotech wheat varieties. Groups such as the National Association of Wheat Growers support work on biotech crops, but wheat sellers learned how sensitive U.S. wheat buyers are to genetic engineering when a small amount of unapproved biotech wheat was found in an Oregon field last year. Buyers in Japan and South Korea immediately slowed purchases and began testing wheat for GE contamination.

The U.S. exports roughly half of its wheat production a year, including an estimated 1.17 billion bushels this year. Globally, about 166 million tons of wheat are projected for exports this year.

Public acceptance could be even more difficult trying to introduce biotech varieties in parts of Africa and Asia facing the worst rust issues.

Catherine Feuillet, senior vice president of trait research for Bayer CropScience, also serves as a co-chair of an international wheat sequencing consortium. Feuillet, who works to identify disease resistance genes for wheat breeders to use, said wheat is much more complex than other crops. It took Feuillet a decade to isolate one wheat gene. Feuillet said biotechnology could accelerate improvements in wheat.

“If we face a major virus infestation in wheat and the only solution is GM, should we just not do it and let wheat be killed by the virus?” Feuillet said. “This is one of the disconnections I see. People are not concerned about this kind of problem because they have cheap food all of the time. People in poorer countries do not have the luxury for these kinds of debates.”

In September, Bayer CropScience announced a plan to spend roughly $1.9 billion through 2020 for research and development in wheat. Over the next 20 years, research should lead to both wheat hybrids and biotech traits to boost global production. However, Feuillet acknowledges potential market sensitivity to adding biotech wheat crops to global markets.

“I think we are facing really big challenges here and I am a scientist, so I have to look at this rationally,” she said. “It is a resource we can use. I think if we give up completely, we are missing an opportunity. As a scientist, I think we have to keep working on it.”

Feuillet, who is French, works between Bayer facilities in Research Triangle, N.C., and Ghent, Belgium. She said work in Europe is frustrating and almost nothing biotech can be tested in Europe.

“Most of the companies don’t see any hope of doing anything in Europe anymore. For me, as a European, I don’t see this as a great view, but we have to continue to deal with it,” she said.

Chris Clayton can be reached at

Follow him on Twitter @ChrisClaytonDTN.



Dr. Rajaram and Dr. Borlaug working in wheat fields in Mexico. Credit: Gene Hettel


Dr. Rajaram receives the World Food Prize

October 17, 2014

The 2014 World Food Prize was presented to Sanjaya Rajaram, Ph.D., on Oct. 16, at the World Food Day. Rajaram was selected for his scientific research that has led to an impressive increase in world wheat production, building upon the success of his former esteemed mentor and colleague Norman Borlaug, Ph.D., and the Green Revolution.

Rajaram is the first wheat scientist honored with the World Food Prize.

Rajaram succeeded Borlaug in leading Mexico’s International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center’s (CIMMYT) wheat breeding program and developed an astounding 480 wheat varieties that have been released in 51 countries on six continents. He built upon Borlaug’s shuttle breeding approach, which reduces the time period to develop varieties by using growing seasons in both the northern and southern hemisphere. Additionally, Rajaram was instrumental in improving the exchange of genetic material between wheat breeders around the world, making the improved genetics more readily accessible to small farmers.

The World Food Prize was founded in 1986 by Borlaug who realized there should be an esteemed, international award to honor agricultural scientists working to end hunger. The prize is an annual $250,000 award often referred to as the “Nobel Prize for Food and Agriculture.”

Since 1986, the award has been given to recipients from all over the globe recognized for a wide range of work in areas including soil and land; plant and animal science; food science and technology; nutrition; rural development; marketing; food processing and packaging; water and the environment; natural resource conservation; physical infrastructure; transportation and distribution; special or extraordinary feeding programs; social organization and poverty elimination; economics and finance; policy analysis; and public advocacy.

In 2007, Borlaug said Rajaram was “the greatest present-day wheat scientist in the world” and a “scientist of great vision.”